Diabetic ketoacidosis in a buck: a case report

Document Type : Scientific report


Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Orathanadu, Thanjavur-614 625, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS), Chennai-51, Tamil Nadu, India


Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism that causes frequent urination, emaciation, extreme tiredness and dehydration. There is little or no information available on DKA in male goat (buck). The present study was carried out to report a rare case of DKA in a buck. Case description: A 1.5 year old buck was presented with anorexia and cough. On physical examination of buck showed fever, dullness, poor body condition and pale conjunctival mucous membrane. Findings/treatment and outcome: The peripheral blood smear revealed the mixed infection of Theileria sp. and Anaplasma sp. The blood picture showed anaemia and leukocytosis. The animal was treated with buparvaquone (2.5 mg/kg) and long acting oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg). Post treatment evaluation was done 7 days after initial treatment. Animal showed mild improvement in feed intake, the body temperature becomes normal, but showed tachycardia with weak pulse. Subsequently, animal showed severe emaciation with frequent urination. Urinalysis revealed glycosuria, ketonuria and acidic urine (pH = 6.0). Serum biochemistry revealed hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, increased level of fructosamine and triglycerides and confirmed spontaneous DKA. It was treated with biphasic isophane insulin (1.0 IU/kg) twice a day, regularly. The blood glucose level becomes normal after insulin therapy. Animal resumed adequate feed intake, improvement in haemoglobulin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), and weight gain was observed. Conclusion: This case study gains significance, due to its successful recovery after insulin treatment, but it requires lifelong insulin therapy to manage insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in this goat.


Bonagura, JD and Twedt, DC (2014). Canine diabetes mellitus. In: Bonagura, J and Twedt, D (Eds.), Kirk’s current veterinary therapy. (15th Edn.), Elsevier, USA. PP: 189-193.
Braun, U; Gansohr, B; Seidel, M; Dumelin, J; Wenger, B; Schade, B and Pospischil, A (2008). Diabetes mellitus in a
goat. Schweiz Arch. Tierh., 150: 608-612.
Causmaecker, VDe; Daminet, S and Paepe, D (2009). Diabetes ketoacidosis and diabetes ketosis in 54 dogs: a retrospective study. Vlaams Diergeneeskd. Tijdschr., 78: 327-337.
Clark, Z (2003). Diabetes mellitus in a 6-month-old Charolais heifer calf. Can. Vet. J., 44: 921-922.
Cudworth, AG and Festenstein, H (1978). HLA genetic heterogeneity in diabetes mellitus. Br. Med. Bull., 34: 285-289.
Haghdoost, IS; Ghaleshahi, AJ and Safi, S (2007). Clinicopathological findings of diabetes mellitus induced by alloxan in goats. Comp. Clin. Pathol., 16: 53-59.
Handwerger, BS; Fernandes, G and Brown, DM (1980). Immune and autoimmune aspects of diabetes mellitus. Hum. Pathol., 11: 338-352.
Jones, AC; Herndon, JG; Courtney, CL; Collura, L and Cohen, JK (2014). Clinicopathologic characteristics, prevalence, and risk factors of spontaneous diabetes in Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys). Comparative Med., 64: 200-210.
Khaki, Z; Jalali, SM; Kazemi, B; Jalali, MR and Yasini, SP (2015). A study of hematological changes in sheep naturally infected with Anaplasma sp. and Theileria ovis: molecular diagnosis. Iran. J. Vet. Med., 9: 19-26.
Kitchen, DL and Roussel, AJ (1990). Type-I diabetes mellitus in a bull. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 197: 761-763.
Levinthal, GN and Tavill, AS (1999). Liver disease and diabetes mellitus. Clin. Diabetes. 17: 73-93.
Lutz, TA; Rossi, R; Caplazi, P and Ossent, P (1994). Secondary diabetes mellitus in a pygmy goat. Vet. Rec., 135: 93.
Magee, MF and Bankim, AB (2001). Management of decompensated diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. Crit. Care. Clin., 17: 75-106.
Nazifi, S; Karimi, T and Ghasrodashti, AR (2004). Diabetes mellitus and fatty liver in a cow: case report. Comp. Clin. Pathol., 13: 82-85.
Nelson, RW (2015). Canine diabetes mellitus. In: Edward Feldman, E; Nelson, R; Reusch, C and Scott-Moncrief, JC (Eds.), Canine and feline endocrinology. (4th Edn.), Elsevier Saunders, USA. PP: 213-257.
Pandey, MK; Mittra, P; Doneria, J and Maheshwari, P (2013). Neurological complications in diabetic ketoacidosis - before and after insulin therapy. Int. J. Med. Sci. Public Health. 2: 88-93.
Sahinduran, S; Ozmen, O and Sevgisunar, NS (2016). Multi-organ damage in a cow with diabetes mellitus. Vet. J. Ankara Univ., 63: 77-81.
Stogdale, L (1986). Definition of diabetes mellitus. Cornell. Vet., 76: 156-174.
Taniyama, H; Shirakawa, T; Furuoka, H; Osame, S; Kitamura, N and Miyazawa, K (1993). Spontaneous diabetes mellitus in young cattle: histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies of the islets of langerhans. Vet. Pathol., 30: 46-54.
Xu, W; Wu, HF; Ma, SG; Bai, F; Hu, W; Jin, Y and Liu, H (2013). Correlation between peripheral white blood cell counts and hyperglycemic emergencies. Int. J. Med. Sci., 10: 758-765.