Optimization of protein in supplementary feeds for pond raised cyprinids

Document Type : Short paper


1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore-54590, Pakistan

2 Department of Zoology, Wildlife and Fisheries, Faculty of Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Labeo rohita, Gibelion catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were grown together for 365 days in triplicate ponds. Six iso-caloric feeds having varying protein levels i.e. 22, 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32% were prepared and supplemented to fish at 2% fish weight daily. Significantly, higher final average weight (793 ± 197 g) and total length gain (398 ± 40 mm) was recorded for Ctenopharyndodon idella. Net fish yield enhanced as the level of digestible protein (DP) in the supplementary diets increased and plateaued at 28% DP level, thereafter significant reduction (P<0.05) in fish weight increments was experienced at any surplus protein level. Among the supplementary feeds, 28% DP level resulted in maximum net fish yield (4304 ± 33 kg ha-1 year-1) and a significantly higher overall nitrogen conversion ratio (NCR) of 1:5.2 ± 0.14. Higher level of DP in supplementary feeds resulted in reduced fish growth.


Ahmed, MK; Shaheen, N; Islam, MS; Habibullah-al-Mamun, M; Islam, S; Mohiduzzaman, M and Bhattacharjee, L (2015). Dietary intake of trace elements from highly consumed cultured fish (Labeo rohita, Pangasius pangasius and Oreochromis mossambicus) and human health risk implications in Bangladesh. Chemosphere. 128: 284-292.
Ashraf, M; Zafar, A; Rauf, A; Mehboob, S and Qureshi, NA (2011). Nutritional values of wild and cultivated silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Int. J. Agric. Biol., 13: 210-214.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2006). Official methods of analysis. 18th Edn., Washington, D. C., Association of Official Analytical Chemists International. P: 1727.
Carlander, D (1970). Handbook of freshwater fishery biology.
3rd Edn., Vol. 1, Lowa, USA, The LowaStateUniversity Press. P: 104.
He, L; Pei, Y; Jiang, Y; Li, Y; Liao, L; Zhu, Z and Wang, Y (2015). Global gene expression patterns of grass carp following compensatory growth. BMC Genomics. 16: 184-201.
Javed, M (1988). Growth performance and meat quality of major carps as influenced by pond fertilization and feed supplementation. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Zoology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. P: 67.
Kim, LO and Lee, SM (2005). Effect of the dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and body composition of bagrid catfish, Pseudobagrus fulvidraco. Aquaculture. 243: 323-329.
Mataka, L and Kangombe, J (2007). Effect of substitution of maize bran with chicken manure in semi-intensive pond culture of Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger). Aquacult. Res., 38: 940-946.
Naz, S; Javed, M; Hayat, S; Abdullah, S; Bilal, M and Shaukat, T (2008). Long term effects of lead (pb) toxicity on the growth performance, nitrogen conversion ratio and yield of major carps. Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 45: 53-58.
Noman, M; Ashraf, M; Abbas, S; Ahmad, I; Naeem, M and Hafeez-ur-rehman, M (2011). Growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in response to organic fertilizers and supplementary feed. Greener J. Agric. Sci., 1: 32-40.
Siddiqui, TQ and Khan, MA (2009). Effect of dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization, protein retention efficiency and body composition of young Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Fish Physiol. Biochem., 35: 479-488.
Singh, RK; Chavan, SL; Desai, AS and Khandagale, PA (2008). Influence of dietary protein levels and water temperature on growth, body composition and nutrient utilization of Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822) fry. J. Therm. Biol., 33: 20-26.
Tabinda, AB and Ayub, M (2010). Effect of high phosphate fertilization rate on pond phosphate concentrations, chlorophyll a, and fish growth in carp polyculture. Aquacult. Int., 18: 285-301.
Yaqoob, M; Ali, MR and Mehmood, S (2010). Comparison of growth performance of major and Chinese carps fed on floating and sinking pelleted supplementary feeds in ponds. Pak. J. Zool., 42: 765-769.