Effects of using eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus L.) leaf powder and its essential oil on growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens

Document Type : Short paper


Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus leaf powder (ELP) and eucalyptus essential oil (EEO) on growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens. A total of 160 broiler chicks were assigned randomly into five dietary treatments from 7-42 days of age. Dietary treatments included: a control diet, control diets plus 1,000 or 3,000 mg/kg of ELP, and control diets plus 250 or 500 mg/kg of EEO. Dietary inclusion of ELP decreased body weight gain (BWG) during 7-28 days of age. Broilers fed diet containing 3,000 mg/kg of ELP had lower feed intake (FI) during 7-28 days compared to the other treatments. Broilers fed ELP or EEO had greater primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) compared to the control, but differences in secondary antibody response were not significant. In conclusion, dietary EEO has the potential to enhance immune response of broiler chickens.


Amakura, Y; Umino, Y; Tsuji, S; Ito Hatano, T; Yoshida, T and Tonogai, Y (2002). Constituents and their anti-oxidative effects in eucalyptus leaf extract used as a natural food additive. Food Chem., 77: 47-56.
Barbour, EK; Bragg, RR; Karrouf, G; Iyer, A; Azhar, E; Harakeh, S and Kumosani, T (2015). Control of eight predominant Eimeria spp. involved in economic coc-cidiosis of broiler chicken by a chemically characterized essential oil. J. Appl. Microbiol., 118: 583-591.
Barbour, EK; Saadé, MF; Abdel-Nour, AM; Kayali, G; Kidess, S; Ghannam, RB; Harakeh, S and Shaib, H (2011). Evaluation of essential oils in the treatment of broilers co-infected with multiple respiratory etiologic agents. Int. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med., 9: 317-323.
Barbour, EK; Yaghi, RH; Shaib, HA; Tayeb, IT and Sleiman, FT (2008). Evaluation of an essential oil in treatment of immunosuppressed-coinfected broilers. Am. Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 2: 212-218.
Danner, R; Chaudhari, SN; Rosenberger, J; Surls, J; Richie, TL; Brumeanu, TD and Casares, S (2011). Expression of HLA class II molecules in humanized NOD.Rag1KO.IL2RgcKO mice is critical for development and function of human T and B cells. PLoS one. 6: e19826.
De Vincenzi, M; Mancini, E and Dessi, MR (1996). Monographs on botanical flavouring substances used in foods. Part V. Fitoterapia. 67: 241-251.
Estanislau, AA; Barros, FAS; Peña, AP; Santos, SC; Ferri, PH and Paula, JR (2001). Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of five species of eucalyptus grown in goiás. Braz. J. Pharmacog., 11: 95-100.
Hassan, MSH; El Sanhoury, MH; Ali, WAH and Ahmed, AMH (2011). Effect of using eucalyptus leaves as natural additives on productive, physiological, immunological and histological performance of laying Japanese quail. Egypt. Poult. Sci., 31: 305-329.
King, DJ and Hopkins, SR (1983). Evaluation of the hemagglutination-inhibition test for measuring the response of chickens to avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccination. Avian Dis., 27: 100-112.
Lee, KW; Everts, H; Kappert, HJ; Frehner, M; Losa, R and Beynen, AC (2003). Dietary carvacrol lowers body weight gain but improves feed conversion in female broiler chickens. J. Appl. Poult. Res., 12: 394-399.
Mansoori, B; Nodeh, H; Modirsanei, M; Kiaei, MM and Farkhoy, M (2007). Evaluating the influence of tannic acid alone or with polyethylene glycol on the intestinal absorption capacity of broiler chickens, using d-xylose absorption test. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 134: 252-260.
Mesquita Júnior, D; Araújo, JAP; Catelan, TTT; de Souza, AWS; de Melo Cruvinel, W; Andrade, LEC and da Silva, NP (2010). Immune system-part II: basis of the immunological response mediated by T and B lym-phocytes. Bras. J. Rheumatol., 50: 552-580.
Moore, BD; Foley, WJ; Wallis, IR; Cowling, A and Handasyde, KA (2005). Eucalyptus foliar chemistry explains selective feeding by koalas. Biol. Lett., 1: 64-67.
Nyman, ME and Björck, IM (1989). In vivo effects of phytic acid and polyphenols on the bioavailability of poly-saccharides and other nutrients. J. Food Sci., 54: 1332-1335.
Ross (2007). Broiler nutrition specifications. Midlothian, Scotland, UK, Aviagen.
Sadlon, AE and Lamson, DW (2010). Immune-modifying and antimicrobial effects of eucalyptus oil and simple inhalation. Altern. Med. Rev., 15: 33-47.
Salari, MH; Amine, G; Shirazi, MH; Hafezi, R and Mohammadypour, M (2006). Antibacterial effects of Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract on pathogenic bacteria isolated from specimens of patients with respiratory tract disorders. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 12: 194-196.
SAS (1996). SAS/STAT User’s Guide. Version 6.12. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Soyingbe, OS; Oyedeji, O; Basson, AK and Opoku, AR (2013). The essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden inhibits microbial growth by inducing membrane damage. Chinese Med., 4: 7-14.
Wallace, RJ; Oleszek, W; Franz, C; Hahn, I; Baser, KH; Mathe, A and Teichmann, K (2010). Dietary plant bioactives for poultry health and productivity. Br. Poult. Sci., 51: 461-487.
Wegmann, TG and Smithies, O (1966). A simple hemagglu-tination system requiring small amounts of red cells and antibodies. Transfusion. 6: 67-73.