Experimental oleander (Nerium oleander) poisoning in goats: a clinical and pathological study

Document Type : Full paper (Original article)


1 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Dried oleander leaves at single lethal dose of 110 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to five
native female goats. Clinical signs of toxicosis in goats began to appear about 1 hr after receiving the
oleander and included abdominal pain, ruminal atony and tympany, frequent urination, bradycardia,
tachycardia, tachyarrhythmia, depression, weakness and convulsive movement and death at the end stage.
Electrocardiography revealed sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, A-V dissociation, ventricular premature
beats, depression of S-T segment, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Four goats died within
4 to 84 hrs and one survived. Haemorrhages in varying degrees in internal organs were observed at necropsy. Histopathology revealed extensive tubular necrosis in kidneys with haemosiderin pigment in the cytoplasm of convoluted tubular cells, varying degrees of coagulative necrosis of cardiac muscle cells associated with haemorrhage and infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, scattered necrosis of hepatocytes, perivascular and perineural oedema, haemorrhagic foci and ischemic cell changes in brain, congestion and oedema in lungs. Severe hyperaemia and infiltration of inflammatory cells were also observed in tissue sections of forestomachs, abomasum and different parts of the intestines.