A preliminary evaluation of tick cement-cone protein extract for a vaccine against Hyalomma infestation

Document Type : Full paper (Original article)


1 Department of Zoology, SBK Women University, Quetta-87300, Pakistan

2 Department of Zoology, University of Balochistan, Quetta-87300, Pakistan

3 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan

4 4Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore-54000, Pakistan, and Division of Bioorganic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, D-66123, Germany


Background: Vaccines have been widely exploited to prevent tick-borne infections in cattle. Most vaccines have faced failure in the field because of inconsistency in an immune response. It is presumed that the cement-cone proteins of ticks that participate in the acquisition of blood meal for ticks possess strong immune-stimulating properties and, hence, could be a useful candidate in vaccine development. Aims: We evaluated cement-cone proteins of tick Hyalomma anatolicum as a vaccine candidate against infestations of H. anatolicum and H. aegyptium in cattle. Methods: The cement-cone proteins were extracted from H. anatolicum to develop stage-reactive and immunogenic cross-reactive vaccine against the infestation of two species of ticks H. anatolicum and H. aegyptium. The immune response of the vaccine was tested against cement-cone proteins starved, partially fed, and richly fed ticks. Results: The findings of the present study demonstrated the cross-reactivity among the two species of ticks that belonged to the same genus (Hyalomma). The antigenic similarity between the two ticks species suggests that a common antigen may possibly be suitable for a vaccine against the two different species of ticks. The results have also indicated that the 23 kDa cement-cone protein of H. anatolicum and H. aegyptium may be responsible for the induction, or elicitation of immunogenic, common stage reactive, and cross-reactive host immune responses with consistent intensity throughout the life stages of ticks. Conclusion: The vaccine based upon cement-cone proteins of ticks may be a useful deterrent against tick-borne infections in cattle in countries like Pakistan.


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