In pregnant mothers maternal diabetes happens when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, so
blood glucose increases in the mother and then in the fetus, resulting in several injuries in neonates. This
study was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on fetal cerebrum. Sixteen adult female rats were divided in two equal groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by alloxan. Both groups became
pregnant by natural mating. At days 17, 18, 19 and 20 of pregnancy, the cerebrum was collected from the
fetuses of all rats, also the body weight and number of fetuses was measured. Various histological parameters were determined using routine histological techniques. Results revealed a significant decrease in the ratio of gray matter to white matter and also the number of cells in gray matter and white matter in all days. There was also a significant decrease in thickness of gray matter at day 20 of pregnancy in the cerebrum of fetuses of diabetic mothers (FDM) as compared with the control group. The body weight of FDM was significantly (P<0.05) more than that of the control group and the number of fetuses in FDM was significantly (P<0.05) less than the control group. Maternal hyperglycemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebrum during fetal life, which affected: cell number, gray matter to white matter ratio and thickness of gray and white matter.