Morphology of the lips, cheeks, and the hard palate of the Egyptian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): a focus on histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural aspects

Document Type : Full paper (Original article)


1 Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, 33511 Kafrelsheikh, Egypt

2 Biology Department, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia, and Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

3 Biology Department, College of Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia

4 Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, 33511 Kafrelsheikh, Egypt

5 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, 33511 Kafrelsheikh, Egypt

6 Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt (current address)


Background: The available data is scanty about Egyptian water buffalo lips, cheeks, and palate. Aims: The current investigation was focused on describing the morphology of the lip, cheek, and palate. Methods: Our study included the gross, light, and electron microscopic examinations of ten heads of the Egyptian water buffalos.Results: The nasolabial plate surface carried numerous scales of keratinized epithelium. Internal labial surface and labial mucocutaneous junctions were covered with stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. Two types of hair follicles in the dermis included ordinary and cavernous types characterized by cavernous space. The conical papillae on the internal aspect of the oral commissure were projected from the mucous membrane. Seromucous glands were occasionally observed under the oral mucous membrane of the commissure and gave positive PAS and AB. Conical papillae density on the inner cheek surface had some variations: the rostral part had large papillae, while the dorsal part had numerous papillae than the ventral part, the caudal part had a smaller number of papillae, while the middle part was devoid of papillae. Parotid duct opening in the buccal vestibule was without papillae. Conical papillae had two surfaces; the rostral surface was highly keratinized than the caudal one. The buccal gland was a compound tubuloacinar mixed (mucoserous) gland and mucus acini only reacted to PAS and AB. The oral surface of palatine rugae was covered with highly keratinized epithelium than the aboral surface. Palatine glands showed PAS and AB positive. Conclusion: The result describes the relationship between the available food particles, environmental conditions and the lip, cheek, and palate appearance, and structure.


Main Subjects

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