Percutaneous transplantation of allogenic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the management of paraplegia secondary to Hansen type I intervertebral disc herniation in a Beagle dog

Document Type : Scientific report

Authors

1 Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

2 Division of Physiology and Climatology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

3 Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

10.22099/ijvr.2021.38613.5620

Abstract

Background: Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) is one of the common causes of spinal cord injury (SCI) in dogs. It is commonly treated by performing surgical decompression that involves the removal of the extruded disc material. However, the recovery rates after surgical interventions are variable and many times unsatisfactory. This report aims to document a case of paraplegia associated with IVDH in a Beagle dog and its therapeutic management using allogenic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (aBM-MSCs). Case description: The dog was presented with paraplegia that was initiated three weeks back. Based on the findings of computed tomography (CT), the condition was diagnosed as Hansen type I IVDH at T12-T13 intervertebral space. Findings/treatment and outcome: Neurological examination was performed to grade the neurological deficit. The isolation, culture, and characterization of aBM-MSCs were done as per the standard protocol. The prepared cell suspension of aBM-MSCs was percutaneously transplanted to the spinal cord parenchyma at the site of injury. A total of four doses of 1 × 106 cells were given at an interval of 15 days along with methylcobalamin and gabapentin orally. Improvement was evaluated based on the neurological examination and grading. Considerable improvement was noticed after the first dose of aBM-MSCs. The animal started complete weight bearing on its pelvic limbs after two doses. Conclusion: Percutaneous transplantation of aBM-MSCs might have played an important role in reversing the neurological deficits secondary to IVDH in this dog. Further studies are required preferably in a larger population to confirm the efficacy of aBM-MSCs therapy in ameliorating neural deficits associated with IVDH.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Ansari, MM; Sreekumar, TR; Chandra, V; Dubey, PK; Kumar, GS; Amarpal, and Sharma, GT (2013). Therapeutic potential of canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and its conditioned media in diabetic rat wound healing. J. Stem Cell Res. Ther., 3: 1-6.
Besalti, O; Can, P; Akpinar, E; Aktas, Z; Elcin, AE and Elcin, YM (2015). Intraspinal transplantation of autologous neurogenically-induced bone marrow-derived mesen-chymal stem cells in the treatment of paraplegic dogs without deep pain perception secondary to intervertebral disk disease. Turk. Neurosurg., 25: 625-632.
Bhat, IA; Somal, A; Pandey, S; Bharti, MK; Panda, B; Verma, M; Sonwane, A; Kumar, GS; Amarpal; Chandra, V and Sharma, GT (2019). An allogenic therapeutic strategy for canine spinal cord injury using mesenchymal stem cells. J. Cell. Physiol., 234: 2705-2718.
Figueroa, FE; Carrión, F; Villanueva, S and Khoury, M (2012). Mesenchymal stem cell treatment for autoimmune diseases: a critical review. Biol. Res., 45: 269-277.
Gordon-Evans, WJ; Johnson, AL; Knap, KE and Griffon, DJ (2019). The effect of body condition on postoperative recovery of dachshunds with intervertebral disc disease treated with postoperative physical rehabilitation. Vet. Surg., 48: 159-163.
Granger, N; Blamires, H; Franklin, RJ and Jeffery, ND (2012). Autologous olfactory mucosal cell transplants in clinical spinal cord injury: a randomized double-blinded trial in a canine translational model. Brain. 135: 3227-3237.
Kim, Y; Lee, SH; Kim, WH and Kweon, OK (2016). Transplantation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells for acute thoracolumbar disc disease with no deep pain perception in dogs. J. Vet. Sci., 17: 123-126.
Mateo, I; Paniagua, R; Cloquell, A and Vazquez, F (2019). Intervertebral T3-T4 disc extrusions in two German shepherd dogs. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc., 55: e553-e603.
Meirelles, L; Fontes, AM; Covas, DT and Caplan, AI
(2009). Mechanisms involved in the therapeutic properties of mesenchymal stem cells. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev., 20: 419-427.
Olby, NJ; De Risio, L; Muñana, KR; Wosar, MA; Skeen, TM; Sharp, NJ and Keene, BW (2001). Development of a functional scoring system in dogs with acute spinal cord injuries. Am. J. Vet. Res., 62: 1624-1628.
Olby, N; Levine, J; Harris, T; Muñana, K; Skeen, T and Sharp, N (2003). Long-term functional outcome of dogs with severe injuries of the thoracolumbar spinal cord: 87 cases (1996-2001). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 222: 762-769.
Robertson, IAN and Thrall, DE (2011). Imaging dogs with suspected disc herniation: pros and cons of myelography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance. Vet. Radiol. Ultrasound. 52: S81-S84.
Ruddle, TL; Allen, DA; Schertel, ER; Barnhart, MD; Wilson, ER; Lineberger, JA; Klocke, NW and Lehenbauer, TW (2006). Outcome and prognostic factors in non-ambulatory Hansen Type I intervertebral disc extrusions: 308 cases. Vet. Comp. Orthop. Traumatol., 19: 29-34.
Sarmento, CA; Rodrigues, MN; Bocabello, RZ; Mess, AM and Miglino, MA (2014). Pilot study: bone marrow stem cells as a treatment for dogs with chronic spinal cord injury. Regen. Med. Res., 2: 1-9.
Sharun, K; Rawat, T; Kumar, R; Chandra, V; Saxena, AC; Pawde, AM; Kinjavdekar, P; Amarpal, and Sharma, GT (2020). Clinical evaluation following the percutaneous transplantation of allogenic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (aBM-MSC) in dogs affected by vertebral compression fracture. Vet. Anim. Sci., 10: 100152.
Smolders, LA; Bergknut, N; Grinwis, GC; Hagman, R; Lagerstedt, AS; Hazewinkel, HA; Tryfonidou, MA and Meij, BP (2013). Intervertebral disc degeneration in the dog. Part 2: Chondrodystrophic and non-chondrodystrophic breeds. Vet. J., 195: 292-299.
Stigen, Ø; Ciasca, T and Kolbjørnsen, Ø (2019). Calcification of extruded intervertebral discs in dachshunds: a radiographic, computed tomographic and histopathological study of 25 cases. Acta Vet. Scand., 61: 13.
Wheeler, SJ and Sharp, NJH (2005). Thoracolumbar disc disease, In: Wheeler, SJ and Sharp, NJH (Eds.), Small animal spinal disorders: diagnosis and surgery. (2nd Edn.), London, Mosby-Wolfe. PP: 121-159.
Wisner, E and Zwingenberger, A (2015). Vertebral column & spinal cord. In: Wisner, ER and Zwingenberger, AL (Eds.), Atlas of small animal CT and MRI. (1st Edn.), Iowa, USA, John Wiley & Sons. PP: 279-386.