Risk factors of diarrhea in small ruminants in Kuwait

Document Type : Short paper

Authors

1 Early Warning Center for Transboundary Animal Diseases-Gulf Cooperation Council, Public Authority for Agriculture Affairs and Fish Resources, Rabyia-1307, Kuwait

2 Department of Science, College of Basic Education, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Ardyia-23167, Kuwait

3 Parasitology Laboratory, Veterinary Laboratories, Public Authority for Agriculture Affairs and Fish Resources, Rabyia-1307, Kuwait

4 Ph.D. Student in Zoology, Parasitology Laboratory, Veterinary Laboratories, Public Authority for Agriculture Affairs and Fish Resources, Rabyia-1307, Kuwait

5 Department of Science, College of Basic Education, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Ardyia-23167, Kuwait;

6 Bacteriology Laboratory, Veterinary Laboratories, Public Authority for Agriculture Affairs and Fish Resources, Rabyia-1307, Kuwait

10.22099/ijvr.2021.38092.5546

Abstract

Background: Diarrhea is the most severe disease affecting small ruminant farms, even though there is continuous progress in the control and prevention strategies. Aims: This study aimed to identify some of the risk factors associated with diarrhea in small ruminants in Kuwait. Methods: Faecal samples from 556 animals (334 sheep and 222 goats) were collected and examined for different enteropathogens. The collected data from animals and herd management were finally analysed. Results: Statistical analysis identified that age (pre-weaned; P=0.022, OR=2.38), herd size (large; P=0.037, OR=1.7), and season (dry; P=0.022, OR=2.39) were as non-infectious risk factors of the diarrhea occurrence. It was found that Escherichia coli K99 (P=0.000, OR=7.7), Cryptosporidium spp. (P=0.000, OR=586), and Eimeria spp. (P=0.000, OR=2.97) were reported more frequently in diarrheic animals than non-diarrheic ones. Conclusion: Pre-weaned small ruminants reared in the large herd were more susceptible to diarrhea. Escherichia coli K99, Cryptosporidium spp., and Eimeria spp. were the most predominant enteropathogens causing diarrhea in small ruminants in Kuwait. Diarrhea was more common in dry season than in wet season.

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