Evaluation of cardiac troponin I, atrial natriuretic peptide and some oxidative/antioxidative biomarkers in the serum and hemolysate of trained Arabian horses after exercise

Document Type : Full paper (Original article)


1 Graduated from Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Background: Limited information existed on performance tests in Iranian Arab horses. Aims: The objective of this study is to investigate time related changes of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and oxidative/antioxidant biomarkers in the serum of Arabian horses before and after regular training. Methods: Blood samples were collected from jugular vein of 25 Arabian horses before exercise; 5 h and 18 h after exercise and used to measure the cTnI, ANP, malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations. Data analysis was performed using SAS. Results: Significant time related changes were seen for cTnI, MDA, and GPX concentrations (P<0.05). There were no time significant variations in the concentrations of ANP, FRAP and SOD. The values of cTnI and MDA significantly increased after exercise. The amounts of GPX significantly increased 5 h after exercise and then decreased up to 18 h after exercise. Conclusion: The results of the present study can be used in future studies in evaluating the health status of Arabian horses. In addition, the present results can be used as primarily described data in the evaluation of Arabian horses.


Main Subjects

Andriichuk, A and Tkachenko, H (2017). Effect of gender and exercise on haematological and biochemical parameters in Holsteiner horses. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 101: 404-413.
Andriichuk, A; Tkachenko, H and Kurhaluk, N (2014). Gender differences of oxidative stress biomarkers and erythrocyte damage in well-trained horses during exercise. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 185: 172-175.
Andriichuk, A; Tkachenko, H and Tkachova, I (2016). Oxidative stress biomarkers and erythrocytes hemolysis in well-trained equine athletes before and after exercise. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 36: 32-43.
Benzie, IFF and Strain, JJ (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem., 239: 70-76.
Durando, MM; Reef, VB; Kline, K and Birks, EK (2006). Acute effects of short duration maximal exercise on cardiac troponin I in healthy horses. Equine Comp. Exerc. Physiol., 3: 217-223.
Fazio, F; Cecchini, S; Saoca, C; Caputo, AR; Lancellotti, M and Piccione, G (2016). Relationship of some oxidative stress biomarkers in jumper horses after regular training program. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 47: 20-24.
Ginsburg, GS; Toole, M; Rimm, E and Douglas, PS (2001). Gender differences in exercise-induced cahnges in sex hormone levels and lipid peroxidation in athletes participating in the Hawaii Ironman Triathlon. Clin. Chim. Acta. 305: 131-139.
Gondim, FJ; Zoppi, CC; Silveria, L; Pereira-Da-Silva, L and Vaz-De-Macedo, D (2009). Possible relationship between performance and oxidative stress in endurance horses. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 29: 206-212.
Ilhan, N; Kamanli, A and Ozmerdivenli, R (2004). Variable effects of exercise intensity on reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reative substance levels, and glucoze concentration. Arch. Med. Res., 35: 294-300.
Kirschvink, N; De Moffarts, B; Farnir, F; Pincemail, J and Lekeux, P (2006). Investigation of blood oxidant/ antioxidant markers in healthy competition horses of different breeds. Equine Vet. J. Suppl., 38: 239-244.
Kraus, M; Jesty, SA; Gelzer, AR; Ducharme, NG; Mohammed, H; Mitchell, LM; Soderholm, LV and Divers, TJ (2010). Measurement of plasma cardiac troponin I concentration by use of a point-of-care analyzer in clinically normal horses and horses with experimentally induced cardiac disease. Am. J. Vet. Res., 71: 55-59.
Lamprecht, ED and Williams, CA (2012). Biomarkers of antioxidant status, inflammation, and cartilage metabolism are affected by acute intense exercise but not superoxide dismutase supplementation in horses. Oxid. Med. Cell Longev., 9: 20-32.
Lippi, G; Schena, F; Salvagno, GL; Montagnana, M; Gelati, M; Terperi, C; Banfi, G and Guidi, GC (2008). Influence of a half-marathon run on NT-proBNP and troponin T. Clin. Lab., 54: 251-254.
Muñoz-Escassi, B; Maranon, GA; Manley, W; Riber, CC; Cayado, P; Leon, R; Garcia, C and Vara, EMG (2006). Exercise-induced changes on lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes levels changes in plasma of show jumping and dressage horses. Int. J. Appl. Res. Vet. M., 4: 274-281.
Nostell, K and Häggström, J (2008). Resting concentrations of cardiac troponin I in fit horses and effect of racing. J. Vet. Cardiol., 10: 105-109.
Petibois, C and Déléris, G (2005). Erythrocyte adaptation to oxidative stress in endurance training. Arch. Med. Res., 36: 524-531.
Ruskoaho, H (2003). Cardiac hormones as diagnostic tools in heart failure. Endocr. Rev., 24: 341-356.
Shave, R and Oxborough, D (2012). Exercise-induced cardiac injury: evidence from novel imaging techniques and highly sensitive cardiac troponin assays. Prog. Cardiovasc Dis., 54: 407-415.
Smarsh, DN and Williams, CA (2017). Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in standardbreds: effect of age and training in resting plasma and muscle. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 48: 93-102.
Soares, JCM; Mandes, JC; Zanella, R; Bondan, C; Alves, LP; De-Lima, MR; Da-Motta, AC and Zanella, EL (2011). Biochemical and antioxidant changes in plasma, serum, and erythrocytes of horses before and after a jumping competition. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 37: 357-360.
Trachsel, DS; Grenacher, B; Weishaupt, MA and Schwarzwald, CC (2012). Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations in horses with heart disease: A pilot study. Vet. J., 192: 166-170.
Trachsel, DS; Schwarzwald, CC; Bitschnau, C and Grenacher, B (2013). Atrial natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin I concentrations in healthy Warmblood horses and in Warmblood horses with mitral regurgitation at rest and after exercise. J. Vet. Cardiol., 15: 105-121.
Van Der Vekens, N; Decloedt, A; Clereq, DD; Verheyen, T and Van-Loon, G (2012). The use of cardiac biomarkers in veterinary medicine: The equine perspective. Flem. Vet. J., 81: 319-327.
Walton, RM (2014). Equine clinical pathology. 1st Edn., Ames, Iowa, USA, John Wiley and Sons Inc., PP: 160-161.