Reproductive enhancement in buffalo: looking at urinary pheromones and hormones

Document Type : Review article


Pheromone Technology Lab, Department of Animal Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-620024, Tamilnadu, India



The success of conception in buffalo is greatly dependent on precise estrus detection and time of artificial insemination (AI). Various visual, behavioral, biochemical and gyneco-clinical parameters have been tracked closely and a cost-effective combinatorial model has been developed to detect estrus in buffaloes. Pheromones play pivotal roles in reproduction and behavior of mammals. Urine, an easily available biological material which reflects the internal status of an animal, was recruited for profiling the pheromone compounds during the various phases of estrous cycle using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Among the identified compounds, 4-methyl phenol (4-mp, p-Cresol) and 9-octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) were found to be estrus-specific and would be promising estrus-indicators. Similarly, detection of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine was also focused to predict the time of ovulation in buffaloes. Partial success has been obtained in the attempt to develop a cost-effective bioassay kit for estrus detection. The ongoing venture of the relevant research team is to develop a biosensor to identify estrus-specific pheromone compounds in urine. Development of a nanoparticle-based bioassay kit for detection of urinary LH for effective prediction of estrus or ovulation is also in progress.


Main Subjects

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