Nitrosative stress indices in dogs with neurological form of canine distemper

Document Type : Short paper


1 Division of Medicine, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

2 Division of Clinical Medicine, DAVASU, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India


This is a prospective, controlled, randomized clinical study to evidence the role of nitrosative stress in development of overt neurological sign of canine distemper (CD). The enrollment of cases wasa made on basis of overt sign of CD (n=139) and the findings were compared with apparently healthy dogs (n=15). The CD specific immunoglobulins resulted in 94 confirmed positive cases. The nitric oxide (NO) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (18.08 ± 2.76, 415.84 ± 46.24, respectively) and plasma (32.68 ± 4.31, 321.31 ± 102.30, respectively) were significantly (P<0.05) elevated as compared to healthy control group. The concentration of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in CSF and plasma were also significantly (P<0.05) higher in dogs suffering from CD. The significant differences in other biochemical parameters like total protein, albumin and globulin were found in the CSF of dogs compared with healthy control. The author concludes that NO plays a role in pathophysiology of neurological form of CD and nNOS and NSE estimation in CSF and plasma could help in making early diagnosis of clinical cases.


Berger, RP; Pierce, MC; Wisniewki, SR and Kochanek, PM (2002). Neuron-specfic enolase in CSF after sever traumatic injury in infants and children’s. Pediatrics. 109: 31-34.
Forstermann, U and Sessa, WC (2012). Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function. Eur. Heart J., 33: 829-837.
González-García, S; González-Quevedo, A; Fernández-Concepción, O; Peña-Sánchez, M; Menéndez-Saínz, C; Hernández-Díaz, Z;Arteche-Prior, M; Pando-Cabrera, A and Fernández-Novales, C (2012). Short-term prognostic value of serum neuron specific enolase and S100B in acute stroke patients. Clin. Biochem., 45: 1302-1307.
Greene, CE and Appel, MJ (2006). Canine distemper. In: Greene, CE (Ed.), Infectious diseases of dog and cat. (3rd Edn.), St. Louis, Missouri, Saunders Elsevier. PP: 25-41.
Jauch, EC; Lindsell, C; Broderick, J; Fagan, SC; Tilley, BC; Levine, SR andNINDS rt-PA Stroke Study Group (2006). Association of serial biochemical markers with acute ischemic stroke: The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Stroke Study. Stroke. 37: 2508-2513.
Karadeniz, A; Hanedan, B; Cemek, M and Borku, MK (2008). Relationship between canine distemper and oxidative stress in dogs. Revue Méd. Vét., 159: 462-467.
Latha, D; Geetha, M; Ramadass, P and Narayan, RB (2007). Development of recombinant nucleocapsid protein based IgM-ELISA for the early detection of distemper infection in dogs. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 119: 278-286.
Nelson, EJ; Connolly, J and McArthur, P (2003). Nitric oxide and S-nitrosylation: excitotoxic and cell signaling mechanism. Biol. Cell., 95: 3-8.
Pacher, P; Beckman, JS and Liaudet, L (2007). Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiol. Rev., 87: 315-424.
Pazzaglia, PJ; Post, RM; Rubinow, D; Kling, MA; Huggins, TS and Sunderlan, T (1995). Cerebrospinal fluid total protein in patients with affective disorders. Psychiatry Res., 57: 259-266.
Reiber, H (2003). Proteins in cerebrospinal fluid and blood: barriers, CSF flow rate and source-related dynamics. Restor. Neurol. Neurosci., 21: 79-96.
Rejdak, K; Petzold, A; Stelmasiak, Z and Giovannoni, G (2008). Cerebrospinal fluid brain specific proteins in relation to nitric oxide metabolites during relapse of multiple sclerosis. Mult. Scler., 14: 59-66.
Sastry, KVH; Moudgal, RP; Mohan, J; Tyagi, JS and Rao, GS (2002). Spectrophotometric determination of serum nitrite and nitrate by copper-cadmium alloy. Anal.
Biochem., 306: 79-82.
Shell, LG (1990). Canine distemper. Camp. Cont. Ed. Pract. Vet., 12: 173-179.
Shukla, R (2007). Nitric oxide in neurodegeneration. Ann. Neurol., 14: 13-20.
Sorjonen, DC (1987). Total protein, albumin quota, and electrophoretic patterns in cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with central nervous system disorders. Am. J. Vet. Res., 48: 301-305.
Summers, BA and Appel, MJ (1994). Aspects of canine distemper virus and measles encephalomyelitis. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol., 20: 525-534.
Terlizzi, RD and Platt, SR (2009). The function, composition and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in companion animals: Part II - Analysis. Vet. J., 80: 15-32.
Thomas, WB (1998). Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system in dogs. Clin. Tech. Small Anim. Pract., 13: 167-178.
Vandevelde, M and Zurbriggen, A (2005). Demyelination in canine distemper virus infection: a review. Acta Neuropathol., 109: 56-68.
Varley, H; Gowenlock, AH and Bell, M (1980). Practical clinical biochemistry. 5th Edn., London, William Heineman Medical Books Ltd., P: 484.
Zaheer, S; Beg, M; Rizvi, I; Islam, N; Ullah, E and Akhtar, N (2013). Correlation between serum neuron specific enolase and functional neurological outcome in patients of acute ischemic stroke. Ann. Indian Acad. Neurol., 16: 504-508.