Trend of toxocariasis in Iran: a review on human and animal dimensions

Document Type : Review article


1 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran

2 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Basic Sciences in Infectious Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


One of the neglected soil and/or food-borne diseases with international public health importance is toxocariasis. Human cases are being increasingly reported from Asian, African, Oceania, European and the American countries. Hence, human toxocariasis (HT) is now considered as a major zoonosis with global and regional importance. In Iran, human and animal toxocariasis is an endemic disease with clinical and epidemiologic health problem aspects. Doubtless, understanding the epidemiology and the trend of this important parasitic disease and its affecting factors will provide the establishment of effective prevention and control programs. To better understand the trend of toxocariasis researches in Iran, this study was performed to analyze different aspects of this zoonotic disease including history, life cycle, species, human animals and environmental studies, diagnostic aspects and treatments to find out the gaps, including different aspects of clinical sings in human patients, new and specific recombinant antigens based on the native antigens, new diagnostic tools, especially rapid diagnostic tests, paratenic hosts status and new treatment procedures which is necessary to be investigated in the future studies on this important zoonotic disease.


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