Alexander, DJ and Chettle, NJ (1977). Procedures for the haemagglutination and the haemagglutination inhibition tests for avian infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathol., 6: 9-17.
Bhatti, BM (1995). A review of incidence of avian influenza disease. Agro-Livestock News. 1: 1-4.
Cotter, PF; Malzone, A; Paluch, B; Lilburn, MS and Sefton, AE (2000). Modulation of humoral immunity in commercial laying hens by a dietary prebiotic. Poult. Sci., 79(S1): 38 (abst.).
Duncan, DB (1955). Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics. 11: 1-42.
Fang, SB; Lee, HC; Hu, JJ; Hou, SY; Liu, HL and Fang, HW (2009). Dose-dependent effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on quantitative reduction of faecal rotavirus shedding in children. J. Trop. Pediatr., 55: 297-301.
Ganguli, K; Meng, D; Rautava, S; Lu, L; Walker, WA and Nanthakumar, N (2013). Probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis by modulating enterocyte genes that regulate innate immune-mediated inflammation. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol., 304: 132-141.
Glenn, GR and Roberfroid, MB (1995). Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concepts of prebiotics. J. Nutr., 125: 1401-1412.
Havenaar, R and Huis In’t Veld, JHJ (1992). Probiotics: A general view in the lactic acid bacteria in health and disease. Vol. 1. WOOD JB.
Janardhana, V; Broadway, MM; Bruce, MP; Lowenthal, JW; Geier, MS; Hughes, RJ and Bean, AG (2009). Prebiotics modulate immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of chickens. J. Nutr., 139: 1404-1409.
Kawase, M; He, F; Kubota, A; Harata, G and Hiramatsu, M (2010). Oral administration of lactobacilli from human intestinal tract protects mice against influenza virus infection. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 51: 6-10.
Lourenço, MC; de Souza, AM; Hayashi, RM; da Silva, AB and Santin, E (2016). Immune response of broiler chickens supplemented with prebiotic from Sacharomyces cerevisiae challenged with Salmonella enteritidis or Minnesota. J. Appl. Poult. Res., 25: 165-172.
National Research Council (2001). Nutrient requirements for poultry. 11th Revised ED. Washington, D.C., USA, NationalAcademy Press.
Noble, GR (1982). Epidemiological and clinical aspects of influenza. In: Beare, AS (Ed.), Basic and applied influenza research. Boca Raton (Florida), CRC Press. PP: 11-50.
Oliveira, MC; Figueiredo-Lima, DF; Faria, DE; Marques, RH and Moraes, VMB (2009). Effect of mannanoligo-saccharides and/or enzymes on antibody titers against infectious bursal and Newcastle disease virus. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., 61: 6-11.
Oyofo, BA; DeLoach, JR; Corrier, DE; Norman, JO; Ziprin, RL and Mollenhauer, HH (1989). Prevention of Salmonella typhimurium colonization of broilers with D-mannose. Poult. Sci., 68: 1357-1360.
Poorbaghi, SL; Dadras, H; Gheisari, HR; Mosleh, N; Firouzi, S and Roohallazadeh, H
(2013). Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and inulin on faecal viral shedding and immunization against H9
avian influenza virus. J. Appl. Microbiol.
, 116: 667-676.
Qaisrani, SN; van Krimpen, MM; Kwakkel, RP; Verstegen, MWA and Hendriks, WH (2015). Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers. Poult. Sci., 94: 2152-2164.
Qiao, H; Duffy, LC; Griffiths, E; Dryja, D; Leavens, A; Rossman, JON; Rich, G; Riepenhoff-Talty, M and Locniskar, M
(2002). Immune responses in rhesus rotavirus-challenged Balb/c mice treated with Bifido-bacteria and Prebiotic supplements. Pediatr. Res.
, 51: 750-755.
Raju, MVLN and Devegowda, G (2002). Esterified-glucomannan in broiler chicken diets-contaminated with aflatoxin, ochratoxin and T-2 toxin: Evaluation of its binding ability (in vitro) and efficacy as immunomodulator. Asian Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 15: 1051-1056.
Reed, LJ and Muench, H (1938). A simple method of estimating fifty percent endpoints. Am. J. Epidemiol., 27: 493-497.
Ribeiro, AML; Vogt, LK; Canal, CW; Cardoso, M; Labres, RV; Sreack, AF and Bessa, MC (2007). Effects of prebiotics and probiotics on the colonization and immune response of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. Braz. J. Poult. Sci., 9: 193-200.
Rickard, ER; Thigpen, M and Crowley, JH (1944). The isolation of influenza A virus by the intra-allantoic inoculation of chick embryos with untreated throat-washings. J. Immunol., 49: 263-271.
Saf-Agric Inc. (2007). SAF-Mannan Product Information Sheet. www.saf-agri.com/english/inomos.htm., Accessed Aug.17.2015.
Schley, PD and Field, CJ (2002). The immune-enhancing effects of dietary fibres and prebiotics. Brit. J. Nutr., 87(S2): 221-230.
Shahir, MH; Sharifi, M; Afsarian, O and Mousavi, SS
(2014). A comparison of the effects of commercial prebiotic (safmannan®
) on performance, egg quality and antibody titer of avian influenza and Newcastle disease in laying hens. J. Vet.
., 69: 79-84.
Shashidhara, RG and Devegowda, G (2003). Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on broiler breeder production traits and immunity. Poult. Sci., 82: 1319-1325.
Silva, VK; da Silva, JDT; Torres, KAA; de Faria Filho, DE; Hada, FH and de Moraes, VB (2009). Humoral immune response of broilers fed diets containing yeast extract and prebiotics in the prestarter phase and raised at different temperatures. J. Appl. Poult. Res., 18: 530-540.
Spring, P; Wenk, C; Dawson, KA and Newman, KE (2000). The effect of dietary mannaoligosaccharides on cecal parameters and the concentrations of enteric bacteria in the ceca of salmonella-challenged broiler chicks. Poult. Sci., 79: 205-211.
Steel, RGD and Dickey, DAJH (1997). Principles and procedures of statistics: a biometrical approach. McGraw-Hill series in probability and statistics.
Strickling, JA; Harmon, DL; Dawson, KA and Gross, KL (2000). Evaluation of oligosaccharide addition to dog diets: influences on nutrient digestion and microbial populations. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 86: 205-219.
Tohid, T; Hasan, G and Alireza T (2010). Efficacy of mannanoligosaccharides and humate on immune response to Avian Influenza (H9) disease vaccination in broiler chickens. Vet. Res. Commun., 34: 709-717.
Yang, Y; Iji, PA; Kocher, A; Mikkelsen, LL and Choct, M (2007). Effects of mannanoligosaccharide on growth performance, the development of gut microflora, and gut function of broiler chickens raised on new litter. J. Appl. Poult. Res., 16: 280-288.
Youn, LH; Lee, YN; Lee, DH; Park, JK; Yuk, SS; Lee, HJ; Yeo, JM; Yang, SY; Lee, JB; Park, SY; Choi, IS and Song, CS (2012). Effect of intranasal administration of Lactobacillus fermentum CJL-112 on horizontal trans-mission of influenza virus in chickens. Poult. Sci., 91: 2517-2522.