Effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on kidney of D-galactose-induced aging model in female mice

Document Type : Short paper


1 Ph.D. Student in Physiology, Department of Physiology, Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Cell & Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

4 MSc in Physiology, Physiology Research Center, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science, Ahvaz, Iran


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) fruit on blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and, kidney histology of a female mouse model of D-galactose induced aging. In this experimental study, 72 NMRI mice were divided into 6 groups: control, VAC, D-galactose, D-galactose+VAC, aging, and aging+VAC. D-galactose was injected for 45 days and, VAC extract administered in the last 7 days, twice a day. Serum BUN and Cr levels were not significantly changed in the D-galactose and natural aged animals in comparison to control group. Histological changes such as nuclear pyknosis, proximal cell swelling, infiltration of inflammatory cells, tubular dilatation and, vasodilatation
were observed in both D-galactose and natural aged mice. Further, glomerules diameter was decreased in them. Administration of VAC could attenuate the histological alterations. These results indicate that VAC may have beneficial effects on aging and aging related kidney disease.


Ahangarpour, A; Oroojan, AA and Heydari, H (2013). Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Dorema aucheri on serum levels of testosterone, FSH and sperm count in nicotinamide-STZ-induced diabetic rat models. ZUMS. Journal. 21: 22-31 (Persian).
Ahangarpour, A; Oroojan, AA and Heidari, H (2014). Effects of exendin-4 on male reproductive parameters of d-galactose induced aging mouse model. World J. Mens. Health. 32: 176-183.
Bitzer, M and Wiggins, J (2016). Aging biology in the kidney. Adv. Chronic Kidney Dis., 23: 12-18.
Brenner, BM; Floyd, CR and Maarten, WT (2011). Brenner & Rector’s the kidney. Epidemiology and risk factors in kidney disease. 9th Edn., Philadelphia, PA, Elsevier Saunders. PP: 818.
Gomes, P; Simão, S; Silva, E; Pinto, V; Amaral, JS; Afonso, J; Serrão, MP; Pinho, MJ and Soares-da-Silva, P (2009). Aging increases oxidative stress and renal expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes that are associated with an increased trend in systolic blood pressure. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev., 2: 138-145.
Ho, SC; Liu, JH and Wu, RY (2003). Establishment of the mimetic aging effect in mice caused by D-galactose. Biogerontology. 4: 15-18.
Ibrahim, N; Shalaby, A; Farag, R; Elbaroty, G; Nofal, S and Hassan, E (2008). Gynecological efficacy and chemical investigation of Vitex agnus-castus L. fruits growing in Egypt. Nat. Prod. Res., 22: 537-546.
Khorsandi, L; Mirhoseini, M; Mohamadpour, M; Orazizadeh, M and Khaghani, S (2013). Effect of curcumin on dexamethasone-induced testicular toxicity in mice. Pharm. Biol., 51: 206-212.
Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L and Vandenabeele, P (2009). Classification of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2009. Cell Death Differ., 16: 3-11.
Ku, SK; Kwak, S and Bae, JS (2014). Orientin inhibits high glucose-induced vascular inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Inflammation. 37: 2164-2173.
Li, JJ; Zhu, Q; Lu, YP; Zhao, P; Feng, ZB; Qian, ZM and Zhu, L (2015). Ligustilide prevents cognitive impairment and attenuates neurotoxicity in D-galactose induced aging micebrain. Brain. Res., 1595: 19-28.
Mirhoseini, M; Mohamadpour, M and Khorsandi, L (2012). Toxic effects of Carthamus tinctorius L. (Safflower) extract on mouse spermatogenesis. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet., 29: 457-461.
Nabih Rashed, K (2013). Antioxidant activity of different extracts of Vitex agnus-castus (L.) and phytochemical profile. Res. In. Pharm., 3: 1-5.
Orazizadeh, M; Fakhredini, F; Mansouri, E and Khorsandi, L (2014). Effect of glycyrrhizic acid on titanium dioxide nanoparticles-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Chem. Biol. Interact., 220: 214-221.


Park, S; Kim, CS; Min, J; Lee, SH and Jung, YS (2014). A high-fat diet increases oxidative renal injury and protein glycation in d-galactose-induced aging rats and its prevention by Korea red ginseng. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 60: 159-166.

Radke, KJ (1994). The aging kidney: structure, function, and nursing practice implications. Nephrol. Nurs. J., 21: 181-193.

Sakhavar, N; Teimoory, B; Razavi, M; Mirteimoori, M; Arbabisarjou, A and Ghaljeh, M (2013). The effect of vitagnus on treatment of hot flash in menopause. Life. Sci. J., 10: 628-632.
Sarıbaz, M; Kaya, Z; Basaran, S; Yaman, B and Sabaz, M (2007). The use of some natural plant species from the WesternBackSea region of Turkey for landscape design. Fresen. Environ. Bull., 16: 193-205.
Silva, FG (2005). The aging kidney: a review. PartI. Int. Urol. Nephrol., 37: 185-205.
Wang, Y; Zhen, Y; Wu, X; Jiang, Q; Li, X; Chen, Z; Zhang, G and Dong, L (2015). Vitex in protects brain against ischemia/reperfusion injury via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase and apoptosis signaling in mice. Phytomedicine. 22: 379-384.