Normal pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic parameters of Turkmen horses of Iran

Document Type : Full paper (Original article)


1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Manager of Turkmen Horse Breeding and Consulting Co. (THBC)


Turkmen horse is one of the oldest and purest breeds in the world, but there is no information on Doppler echocardiographic parameters in this horse. In the present study, pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography was performed on 42 clinically normal 3- to 15-year-old racing Turkmen horses. No cardiac disease was detected with two-dimensional (2-D) real-time, M-mode, and colour flow mapping. Doppler echocardiographic parameters and indices of tricuspid, mitral, pulmonary and aortic flows were measured in this study. Tricuspid inflow velocities during rapid filling (E) and atrial contractions (A) were significantly higher than mitral inflow (P<0.05). The Doppler waveforms, obtained from the aortic outflow, showed a significantly longer pre-ejection period (PEP) and shorter ejection time (ET) than the pulmonary artery waveforms (P=0.001 and P=0.028, respectively). The time taken from the onset of the QRS complex to the onset of the A wave for tricuspid flow, pulmonary PEP, and pulmonary PEP/ET, had a significant positive correlation with age. These values can be used as standard and reference values for evaluation of cardiovascular disorders in Turkmen horse.