Document Type : Full paper (Original article)
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore-54000, Pakistan
Background: Lameness in dairy cattle is prevalent worldwide and has serious economic and welfare implications. Nevertheless, it is an overlooked and least studied dairy problem in Pakistan. Aims: This study was executed for in-vivo and in-vitro evaluation of antimicrobials and disinfectants against bacterial pathogens from hoof lesions of commercial dairy cattle. Methods: For in-vitro studies, 23 bacterial isolates (n=10 Staphylococcus aureus, n=8 Fusobacterium necrophorum, n=5 Bacteroides) from hoof lesions were used for antimicrobial and disinfectants susceptibility testing. In-vivo trials were carried out among 4 groups of dairy cows suffering from hoof lesions using different combinations of antimicrobials, NSAIDs, and disinfectants either parenteraly or topically. Results: Results indicated that most of the isolates of S. aureus, F. necrophorum and Bacteroides were resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, and tylosin. Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective antimicrobials (in-vitro) against all three bacterial pathogens. Comparison of in-vitro efficacy of disinfectants showed, copper sulfate being the most effective disinfectant against the three pathogens followed by povidone-iodine and chloroxylenol. In-vivo trials revealed that ciprofloxacin at 5 mg/kg/day IM for 7 days, flunixin maglumine at 2.2 mg/kg/day IM for 7 days and copper sulfate (5% solution) as foot-bath twice daily for 21 days was the most effective treatment regimen to treat lameness in commercial dairy cows. Conclusion: It was concluded that in-vitro antibiogram and disinfectant studies were useful tools to assess the effectiveness of routinely used antimicrobials and disinfectants for the treatment of lameness.