Pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic assessment after sedation by intravenous injection of medetomidine and xylazine hydrochloride on cardiac output and systolic time intervals in one-humped camel calves (Camelus dromedarious)

Document Type : Full paper (Original article)


1 Department of Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

3 Ph.D. Student in Clinical Pathology, Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Ph.D. Student in Epidemiology, Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran



Background: Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography provides a convenient and noninvasive tool for measuring cardiac output (CO) alternations after the administration of sedative drugs, but this is not a usual method for camelids. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes of the left and right ventricular outflow tracts (LVOT and RVOT), CO, and systolic time intervals following the intravenous (IV) injection of medetomidine (M) and xylazine (X) using PW Doppler echocardiography. Methods: Twenty apparently healthy immature male one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarious) were selected and divided into four groups (five animals per group). Medetomidine and X were injected to the left jugular vein at two different doses of 10 and 20 μg/kg, and 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg, respectively. Effects on echocardiographic parameters were assessed at 4 intervals: before, 3, 60, and 120 min after drug administrations. Results: Velocity time integrity (VTI), maximum/mean flow velocity (Vmax and Vmean) and maximum/mean pressure gradient (PGmax and PGmean) decreased in aortic and pulmonic valves. Left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and LVET + pre ejection period (PEP) decreased and PEP and PEP/LVET increased in all groups except the low dose X group, 3 min after drug administration (P<0.05). The least values of VTI, velocity (V), PG and CO were observed after 60 min in the low dose X group (P<0.05). Conclusion: A relationship was found between the intensity and the duration of changes in cardiac parameters and both types and dosages of the injected drugs. We concluded that X and M have transient depressor effects on the ventricular outflow tract and CO of healthy camels.


Main Subjects

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