Genetic analysis and emergence of Canine Parvovirus type 2c in South Eastern Nigeria

Document Type: Short paper


Department of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike



Background: Genetic analysis of Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) variants circulating in South Eastern Nigeria was investigated.  The original strain of CPV-2 first emerged in 1978 and later mutated to CPV-2a and has continued to evolved. Aim: To genetically characterize CPV-2 strains detected in dogs in South Eastern Nigeria and phylogenetically group the viruses with existing sequencing data. Methods: A total of eighty-two (82) rectal swabs were collected into 2 ml cryovial containing virus transport medium (VTM) from dogs with suspected cases of CPV-2 within the study area and were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Seventy nine (79) samples (96.3%) were positive for CPV-2 and sequence analysis of partial VP2 gene of twenty (20) amplicons revealed circulation of CPV-2a (n = 4) and CPV-2c (n = 16) in the region. The strains obtained clustered together. However, the group further divides into two clear clusters comprising of 2a and 2c strains. The vaccine strain and the CPV-2 reference strains from USA formed a monophyletic cluster. Conclusion: Canine parvovirus types 2a and 2c are co-circulating in South Eastern region of Nigeria and therefore, urgent need for an improved vaccine to cover for the emerging strain (CPV-2c) in Nigeria.