Diabetic ketoacidosis in a buck: a case report

Document Type: Scientific report


Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Orathanadu, Thanjavur-614 625, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS), Chennai-51, Tamil Nadu, India


Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism that causes frequent urination, emaciation, extreme tiredness and dehydration. There is little or no information available on DKA in male goat (buck). The present study was carried out to report a rare case of DKA in a buck. Case description: A 1.5 year old buck was presented with anorexia and cough. On physical examination of buck showed fever, dullness, poor body condition and pale conjunctival mucous membrane. Findings/treatment and outcome: The peripheral blood smear revealed the mixed infection of Theileria sp. and Anaplasma sp. The blood picture showed anaemia and leukocytosis. The animal was treated with buparvaquone (2.5 mg/kg) and long acting oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg). Post treatment evaluation was done 7 days after initial treatment. Animal showed mild improvement in feed intake, the body temperature becomes normal, but showed tachycardia with weak pulse. Subsequently, animal showed severe emaciation with frequent urination. Urinalysis revealed glycosuria, ketonuria and acidic urine (pH = 6.0). Serum biochemistry revealed hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, increased level of fructosamine and triglycerides and confirmed spontaneous DKA. It was treated with biphasic isophane insulin (1.0 IU/kg) twice a day, regularly. The blood glucose level becomes normal after insulin therapy. Animal resumed adequate feed intake, improvement in haemoglobulin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), and weight gain was observed. Conclusion: This case study gains significance, due to its successful recovery after insulin treatment, but it requires lifelong insulin therapy to manage insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in this goat.


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