The effects of post-partum drops in body condition on indices of energy metabolism in mid-lactation Holstein cows

Document Type: Full paper (Original article)

Authors

1 Department of Animal Health Management, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

3 Ph.D. Student in Feed Hygiene, Department of Animal Health Management, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Background: Evaluation of energy metabolism indices in mid-lactation Holstein cows is critical to monitor health status. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of low (≤0.75) vs. high (>0.75) drops in body condition score (BCS) until day 60 post-partum on energy metabolism indices during mid-lactation in Holstein cows. Methods: Twenty-eight Holstein cows were included in the study from the day of calving to day 120 of lactation. Whole blood samples were taken on 60, 90, and 120 days in milk (DIM). Serum was analyzed for insulin, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels. Results: In cows with low BCS drop (LoD group), insulin did not change significantly through days 60 to 120 of lactation, but increased in high drop cows (HiD group) (P<0.001). Glucose concentrations decreased linearly in the LoD cows (P=0.039) and showed a quadratic increase in the HiD group on day 90 (P=0.028). Concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids showed both linear (P=0.04) and quadratic (P=0.002) changes in the HiD group. The HiD cows had significantly higher concentrations of insulin on day 120 (P=0.017) compared to the LoD group. Glucose concentration was lower (P<0.01) in HiD cows on 60 DIM. The concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher in HiD cows on day 90 (P<0.01). Surrogate indices of insulin resistance (calculated based on the concentrations of the measured metabolites) were different between the groups on day 90, indicating decreased insulin sensitivity in the HiD cows. Conclusion: Greater depletion of body reserves during early lactation may result in some inconsistencies in energy metabolism during mid-lactation periods. Controlling BCS loss during early lactation may help alleviate such alterations possibly through modifying insulin sensitivity of the tissues.

Keywords


Abdelli, A; Raboisson, D; Kaidi, R; Ibrahim, B; Kalem, A and Iguer-Ouada, M (2017). Elevated non-esterified fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyrate in transition dairy cows and their association with reproductive performance and disorders: a meta-analysis. Theriogenology. 93: 99-104.‏

Alves-Nores, V; Castillo, C; Hernandez, J and Abuelo, A (2017). Comparison of surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity with parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in early lactation dairy cattle. Dom. Anim. Endocrinol., 61: 48-53.

Balogh, O; Szepes, O; Kovacs, K; Kulcsar, M; Reiczigel, J; Alcazar, JA and Fesus, L (2008). Interrelationships of growth hormone AluI polymorphism, insulin resistance, milk production and reproductive performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. Vet. Med-Czech., 53: 604-616.

Baruselli, PS; Vieira, LM; SáFilho, MF; Mingoti, RD; Ferreira, RM; Chiaratti, MR and Sartori, R (2016). Associations of insulin resistance later in lactation on fertility of dairy cows. Theriogenology. 86: 263-269.‏

Cincović, M; Kirovski, D; Vujanac, I; Belić, B and Djoković, R (2017). Relationship between the indexes of insulin resistance and metabolic status in dairy cows during early lactation. Acta Vet. Brno. 67: 57-70.‏

De Koster, JD; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Hermans, K; Moerman, S; Bogaert, H; Depreester, E; Van den Broeck, W and Opsomer, G (2015). Insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows across a range of body condition scores. J. Dairy Sci., 98: 4580-4592.

De Koster, JD and Opsomer, G (2013). Insulin resistance in dairy cows. Vet. Clin. Food Anim. Pract., 29: 299-322.

Edmonson, AJ; Lean, IJ; Weaver, LD; Farver, T and Webster, G (1989). A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 72: 68-78.‏

Gross, J; van Dorland, HA; Schwarz, FJ and Bruckmaier, RM (2011). Endocrine changes and liver mRNA abundance of somatotropic axis and insulin system constituents during negative energy balance at different stages of lactation in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 94: 3484-3494.

Guyot, H; Detilleux, J; Lebreton, P; Garnier, C; Bonvoisin, M; Rollin, F and Sandersen, C (2017). Comparison of various indices of energy metabolism in recumbent and healthy dairy cows. PloS One. 12: 1-11.‏

Holtenius, P and Holtenius, K (2007). A model to estimate insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Acta Vet. Scand., 49: 29.

Kafi, M and Mirzaei, A (2010). Effects of first postpartum progesterone rise, metabolites, milk yield, and body condition score on the subsequent ovarian activity and fertility in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 42: 761-767.

Kinoshita, A; Keese, C; Meyer, U; Starke, A; Wrenzycki, C; Dänicke, S and Rehage, J (2018). Chronic effects of fusarium mycotoxins in rations with or without increased concentrate proportion on the insulin sensitivity in lactating dairy cows. Toxins (Basel). 10: 1-23.

Marett, LC; Auldist, MJ; Moate, PJ; Wales, WJ; Macmillan, KL; Dunshea, FR and Leury, BJ (2015). Response of plasma glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous glucose tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation. J. Dairy Sci., 98: 179-189.

Mohebbi-Fani, M; Omidi, A; Mirzaei, A; Nazifi, S and Nowroozi, K (2018). A field study on glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate and thyroid hormones in dairy cows during the breeding period in Fars province, Iran. Iran. J. Vet. Res., 20: 55-59.

Oetzel, GR (2004). Monitoring and testing dairy herds for metabolic disease. Vet. Clin. Food Anim. Pract., 20: 651-674.

Oliviera, LH; Nascimento, AB; Monteiro, PLJ; Guardieiro, MM; Wiltbank, MC and Sartori, R (2016). Development of insulin resistance in dairy cows by 150 days of lactation does not alter oocyte quality in smaller follicles. J. Dairy Sci., 99: 9174-9183.

Opsomer, G; Grohn, YT; Hertl, J; Coryn, M; Deluyker, H and de Kruif, A (2000). Risk factors for post partum ovarian dysfunction in high producing dairy cows in Belgium: a field study. Theriogenology. 53: 841-857.

Rico, JE; Bandaru, VVR; Dorskind, JM; Haughey, NJ and McFadden, JW (2015). Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. J. Dairy Sci., 98: 7757-7770.

Roche, JR; Friggens, NC; Kay, JK; Fisher, MW; Stafford, KJ and Berry, DP (2009). Body condition score and its association with dairy cow productivity, health, and welfare. J. Dairy Sci., 92: 5769-5801.‏

Rudvik, A and Månsson, M (2018). Evaluation of surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity-correlation with gold standard is not enough. BMC Med. Res. Methodol., 18: 64. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-018-0521-y.

Van Knegsel, AT; Hammon, HM; Bernabucci, U; Bertoni, G; Bruckmaier, RM; Goselink, RM and Trevisi, E (2014). Metabolic adaptation during early lactation: key to cow health, longevity and a sustainable dairy production chain. CAB Rev., 9: 1-15.‏

Van Saun, RJ and Sniffen, CJ (2014). Transition cow nutrition and feeding management for disease prevention. Vet. Clin. Food Anim. Pract., 30: 689-719.