Adinezadeh, A; Kia, EB; Mohebali, M; Shojaee, S; Rokni, MB; Zarei, Z and Mowlavi, G (2013). Endoparasites of stray dogs in Mashhad, KhorasanRazaviProvince, northeast Iran with special reference to zoonotic parasites. Iran J. Parasitol., 8: 459-466.
Akhlaghi, L; Ourmazdi, H; Sarafnia, A; Vaziri, S; Jadidian, K and Leghaii, Z (2006). An investigation on the toxocariasis seroprevalence in children (2-12 years-old) from Mahidasht area of KermanshahProvince (2003-2004). Razi J. Med. Sci., 13: 41-48.
Alavi, SM; Hosseini, SA; Rahdar, M; Salmanzadeh, SH and Nikkhuy, AR (2011). Determination of seroprevalence rate of Toxocara canis in 6-15 years aged rural and urban school children in Ahvaz. Jundishapur Sci. Med. J., 10: 240-248.
Alavi, SM and Sephidgaran, GH (2009). Prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis in children with chronic cough in urban and rural areas of Ahvaz city. J. Med., 8: 181-188.
Allahdin, S; Khademvatan, S; Rafiei, A; Momen, A and Rafiei, R (2015). Frequency of Toxoplasma and Toxocara sp. antibodies in epileptic patients, in south western Iran. Iran J. Child Neurol., 9: 32-40.
Alonso, JM; Stein, M; Chamorroo, MC and Bojanich, MV (2001). Contamination of soil with eggs of Toxocara in a subtropical city in Argentina. J. Helminthol., 75: 165-168.
Arbabi, M and Hooshyar, H (2009). Gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in Kashan, Iran. Trop. Biomed., 26: 16-22.
Arfaa, F (1972). Status of infections with larva migrans in Iran. Iran J. Public Health. 2: 168-174.
Azizi, S; Oryan, A; Sadjjadi, SM and Zibaei, M (2007). Histopathologic changes and larval recovery of Toxocara cati in experimentally infected chickens. Parasitol. Res., 102: 47-52.
Bahrami, A; Doosti, A; Nahravanian, H; Noorian, AM and Asbchin, SA (2011). Epidemiological survey of gastro-intestinal parasites in stray dogs and cats. Aus. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 5: 1944-1948.
Ballweber, LR (2001). Veterinary parasitology: the practical veterinarian series. 1st Edn., Oxford, UK, Butterworth-Heineman. PP: 143-144.
Beaver, PC (1969). The nature of visceral larva migrans. J. Parasitol., 55: 3-12.
Beiromvand, M; Akhlaghi, L; Fattahi Massom, SH; Meamar, AR; Motevalian, A; Oormazdi, H and Razmjou, E (2013). Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in domestic and stray dogs in a rural area of Iran. Prev. Vet. Med., 109: 162-167.
Berenji, F; Movahedi Rudy, AG; Rudy, AG; Fata, A; Tavassoli, M; Mousavi Bazaz, M and Salehi Sangani, G (2015). Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks of Mashhad and Khaf, north east of Iran. Iran J. Parasitol., 10: 286-289.
Berenji, F; Pouryousef, A; Fata, A; Mahmoudi, M; Salehi, M and Khoshnegah, J (2016). Seroepidemiology study of toxocariasis in the owners of domestic cats and dogs in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran. Iran J. Parasitol., 11: 265-268.
Borji, H; Razmi, G; Ahmadi, A; Karami, H; Yaghfoori, S and Abedi, V (2011). A survey on endoparasites and ectoparasites of stray cats from Mashhad (Iran) and association with risk factors. J. Parasit. Dis., 35: 202-206.
Chorazy, ML and Richardson, DJ (2005). A survey of environmental contamination with ascarid ova, Wallingford, Connecticut. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis., 5: 33-39.
Coelho, LM; Dini, CY; Milman, MH and Oliveira, SM (2001). Toxocara spp. eggs in public squares of Sorocaba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo., 43: 189-191.
Dalimi, A and Mobedi, I (1992). Helminth parasites of carnivores in northern Iran. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 86: 395-397.
Daryani, A; Sharif, M; Amouei, A and Gholami, S (2009). Prevalence of Toxocara canis in stray dogs, Northern Iran. Pak. J. Bio. Sci., 12: 1031-1035.
de Savigny, DH (1975). In vitro maintenance of Toxocara canis larvae and a simple method for the production of Toxocara ES antigen for use in serodiagnostic tests for visceral larva migrans. J. Parasitol., 61: 781-782.
Ebrahimi, M; Rouhani, S; Khazan, H and Mobedi, E (2013). Survey of Toxocara larva in hunted partridges’ viscera. Res. Med., 36: 200-204.
Ebrahimifard, SF; Fakhar, M; Sharif, M and Shirvani, SDN (2015). Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection among adult individuals with eosinophilia in Babol, 2013. J. MazandaranUniv. Med. Sci., 25: 355-362.
Einipour, S; Jalusian, F; Ramezani, A; Abadi, A; Hajialiani, F; Zeinali, S and Biderouni, FT (2016). Toxocariasis antibody tittering in patients with uveitis. Koomesh. 17: 903-909.
Emampour, RS; Borji, H and Naghibi, A (2015). An epidemiological survey on intestinal helminths of stray dogs in Mashhad, North-East of Iran. J. Parasit Dis., 39: 266-271.
Eslami, A; Ranjbar-Bahadori, RH; Meshgi, B; Dehghan, M and Bokaie, S (2010). Helminth infections of stray dogs from Garmsar, Semnan province, central Iran. Iran J. Parasitol., 5: 37-41.
Esmaeilzadeh, M; Shamsfard, M; Kazemi, A; Khalafi, SA and Altome, SA (2009). Prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats in ZanjanProvince, north-west of Iran. Iran J. Parasitol., 4: 71-75.
Fallah, M; Azimi, A and Taherkhani, H (2003). Sero-prevalence of toxocariasis in children aged 1-9 years in Western Islamic Republic of Iran, 2003. East. Mediterr. Health J., 13: 1073-1075.
Fallah, AA; Makhtumi, Y and Pirali-Kheirabadi, K (2016). Seasonal study of parasitic contamination in fresh salad vegetables marketed in Shahrekord, Iran. Food Cont., 60: 538-542.
Farivar, KH and Rafat, S (1991). Visceral larva migrans (VLM): report of 2 cases. Med. J. Islam. Repub. Iran., 2: 94-97.
Fillaux, J and Magnaval, JF (2013). Laboratory diagnosis of human toxocariasis. Vet. Parasitol., 193: 327-336.
Garedaghi, Y (2013). Seroprevalence of toxocariasis in children in East-Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Cukurova Med. J., 38: 581-586.
Garedaghi, Y and Safar Mashaei, S (2011). Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthic infestation in pet and stray dogs in Tabriz (East-AzerbaijanProvince). Iran. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 10: 1477-1479.
Garedaghi, Y and Shabestari-Asl, SA (2012). Contamination rate of Toxocara spp. eggs in the public parks of Tabriz city: a short report. J. RafsanjanUniv. Med. Sci., 11: 173-178.
Garedaghi, Y; Shabestari-Asl, A and Ahmadi, S (2014). Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in stray dogs of Tabriz city, Iran. Greener J. Bio. Sci., 4: 135-138.
Geraili, A; Maroufi, Y; Dabirzadeh, M; Noormohammadi, H and Khoshsima Shahraki1, M (2016). A survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeastern of Iran. Arch. Razi Inst., 71: 57-60.
Ghaemi, P; Sadr-Shirazi, N and Ghaemi, P (2011). Study on Helminthic parasites of Persian leopard (Panther a patdus saxicolor Pocock, 1927) in GolestanNational Park and Biosphere Reserve of Iran. World Appl. Sci. J., 13: 1471-1473.
Ghashghaei, O; Khedri, J; Jahangiri-Nasr, F; Hadi Hashemi, S and Nourollahi Fard, SR (2016). Con-tamination of soil samples of public parks with Toxocara spp. eggs in Kermanshah, Iran. J. Fac. Vet. Med. Istanbul Univ., 42: 47-50.
Gholami, S; Mobedi, E; Ziaee, H and Sharif, M (1999). Intestinal helminth parasites in dog and jackal in inferent areas of Sari in the years 1371-72. J. MazandaranUniv. Med. Sci., 9: 1-12.
Ghomashlooyan, M; Falahati, M; Mohaghegh, MA; Jafari, R; Mirzaei, F; Kalani, H; Sangani, GS and Azami, M (2015). Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the public parks of Isfahan city, central Iran. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis., (Suppl. 1), 5: S93-95.
Ghorbani-Ranjbary, A; Ghorbani-Ranjbary, N; Varzandian, S and Ghorbani-Ranjbary, Z (2015). Frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies in students with chronic cough and eosinophilia in a rural area of Zahedan, Iran. Zahedan J. Res. Med. Sci., 17: 15-18.
Ghorbani-Ranjbary, A; Shafie, A and Anamipor, AD (2014). Frequency of Toxocara egg in public parks Shiraz/Iran. J. KermanUniv. Med. Sci., 21: 174-179.
Glickman, LT; Schantz, PM and Cypess, RH (1979). Epidemiological characteristics and clinical findings in patients with serologically proven toxocariasis. Trans R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 73: 254-258.
Hajipour, N; Imani Baran, A; Yakhchali, M; Banan Khojasteh, SM; Sheikhzade Hesari, F; Esmaeilnejad, B and Arjmand, J (2016). A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in Azarshahr, (East Azerbaijan province, Iran). J. Parasit. Dis., 40: 1255-1260.
Hosseini-Safa, A; Mousavi, SM; Bagh-Badorani, MB; Ghatreh-Samani, MG; Mostafaei, S and Yousofi-Darani, H (2015). Seroepidemiology of toxocariasis in children (5-15 yr Old) referred to the pediatric clinic of ImamHosseinHospital, Isfahan, Iran. Iran J. Parasitol., 10: 632-637.
Ishiyama, S; Ono, K; Rai, SK and Uga, S (2009). Method for detecting circulating Toxocara canis antigen and its application in human serum samples. Nepal Med. Coll. J., 11: 9-13.
Jahani, MR; Massoud, J and Shojahsadati, SA (1996). Preparation and purification of excretory-secretory antigens of Toxocara canis second stage larvae and its application in the diagnosis of infected people. Kowsar Med. J., 1: 147-157.
Jamalian, RV (1976). Visceral larval migrans and a case report in Iran. J. Iran Med. Council. 10: 36-39.
Khademvatan, S; Abdizadeh, R and Tavalla, M (2014). Molecular characterization of Toxocara spp. from soil of public areas in Ahvaz southwestern Iran. Acta Trop., 135: 50-54.
Khazan, H; Khazaei, M; Seyedtabaei, SJ and Mehrabi, A (2012). Prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks in Tehran city, Iran. Iran J. Parasitol., 7: 38-42.
Magnaval, JF (1995). Comparative efficacy of diethylcar-bamazine and mebendazole for the treatment of human toxocariasis. Parasitology. 110: 529-533.
Magnaval, JF; Faber, R; Maurieres, P; Charlet, JP and de Larrad, B (1991). Application of the Western blotting procedure for the immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. Parasitol. Res., 77: 697-702.
Magnaval, JF; Glickman, LT; Dorchies, P and Morassin, B (2001). Highlights of human toxocariasis. Korean J. Parasitol., 39: 1-11.
Maizels, RM (2013). Toxocara canis: molecular basis of immune recognition and evasion. Vet. Parasitol., 193: 365-374.
Maizels, RM and Page, AP (1990). Surface associated glycoproteins from Toxocara canis larval parasites. Acta Trop., 47: 355-364.
Maizels, RM; de Savigny, D and Ogilvie, BM (1984). Characterization of surface and excretory-secretory antigens of Toxocara canis infective larvae. Parasite Immunol., 6: 23-37.
Maizels, RM; Tetteh, KK and Loukas, A (2000). Toxocara canis: genes expressed by the arrested infective larval stage of a parasitic nematode. Int. J. Parasitol., 30: 495-508.
Makarechian, M (1955). Study of intestinal helminths in dogs Tehran. DVM’s Thesis. Tehran: TehranUniversity. PP: 15-80.
Maleky, F and Massoud, J (1997). Comparison of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati excretory-secretory proteins antigens second stage larvae by biochemical methods. Pulse J., 6: 18-21.
Maraghi, S; Mazhab Jafari, K; Sadjjadi, SM; Latifi, SM and Zibaei, M (2014). Study on the contamination of Abadan public parks soil with Toxocara spp. eggs. J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng., 12: 86.
Maraghi, S; Rafiei, A; Hajihosseini, R and Sadjjadi, SM (2012). Seroprevalence of toxocariasis in hypereosinophilic individuals in Ahwaz, southwestern Iran. J. Helminthol., 86: 241-244.
Mehrabani, D; Sadjjadi, SM and Oryan, A (2002). Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in stray dogs in Shiraz, Southern Iran. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 22: 157-160.
Mekaniki, E (2006). Ocular toxocariasis in a 40-year-old man. J. BabolUniv. Med. Sci., 8: 67-69.
Meshgi, B; Eslami, A; Bahonar, AR; Kharrazian-Moghadam, M and Gerami-Sadeghian, A (2009). Prevalence of parasitic infections in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in Iran. Iran. J. Vet. Res., 10: 387-391.
Meshgi, B; Jamshidi, S; Saadati, D; Hooshyar, H and Bokaie, S (2014). An overview of Toxocara cati infection in stray cats in the metropolitan region of Tehran, Iran, and a comparison of two diagnostic methods. Iran J. Vet. Med., 4: 53-56.
Mikaeili, F; Mirhendi, H; Hosseini, M; Asgari, Q and Kia, EB (2013). Toxocara nematodes in stray cats from Shiraz, southern Iran: intensity of infection and molecular identification of the isolates. Iran J. Parasitol., 8: 593-600.
Miladi, H; Didehdar, M; Hajihossein, R; Rafiei, F and Eslamirad, Z (2016). Evaluating correlation between serum liver enzymes and toxocariasis: a case control study. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis., 6: 460-462.
Mirzaei, M and Fooladi, M (2012). Prevalence of intestinal helminthes in owned dogs in Kerman city, Iran. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med., 5: 735-737.
Mirzayans, A (1971). Incidence of gastrointestinal helminths of domestic cats in the Tehran area of Iran. J. Parasitol., 57: 1296.
Mirzayans, A; Eslami, AH; Anwar, A and Sanjar, M (1972). Gastrointestinal parasites of dogs in Iran. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 4: 58-60.
Mobedi, I (1968). Determine the extent of contamination of Tehran dogs to Echinococcus granulosus. MPH’s Thesis, Tehran: TehranUniversity. Prevalence of intestinal helminthes in owned dogs in Kerman city, Iran. PP: 42-68.
Momeni, T; Mahami Oskouei, M; Fallah, E; Safaiyan, A and Mahami Oskouei, L (2016). Latent and asymptomatic Toxocara infection among young population in northwest Iran: the necessity of informing people as a potential health risk. Scientifica (Cairo). 2016; 3562056. doi: 10.1155/2016 /3562056.
Mosayebi, M; Moini, L; Hajihossein, R; Didehdar, M and Eslamirad, Z (2016). Detection of specific antibody reactivity to Toxocara larval excretory-secretory antigens in asthmatic patients (5-15 years). Open Microbiol. J., 10: 162-167.
Motazedian, H; Mehrabani, D; Tabatabaee, SH; Pakniat, A and Tavalali, M (2006). Prevalence of helminth ova in soil samples from public places in Shiraz. East. Mediterr. Health J., 12: 562-565.
Nourian, A and Amiri, M (2009). Seroepidemiology toxocariasis in children 2 to 15 years old referring to health centers and hospitals of Zanjan province in 1386. J. Med., 47: 131-134.
Olyaei, A and Hajivandi, L (2013). Parasitological con-tamination of markets and farms in vegetables consumed in Southern Iran. Global Vet., 10: 327-331.
Oryan, A and Alidadi, S (2015) Toxocariasis: a neglected parasitic disease with public health importance. Trop. Med. Surg., 3: e126.
Oryan, A; Sadjjadi, SM and Azizi, S (2009). The effects of benzimidazoles on the larval stage of Toxocara cati in experimentally infected chickens. Trop. Biomed., 26: 30-39.
Oryan, A; Sadjjadi, SM and Azizi, S (2010) Longevity of Toxocara cati larvae and pathology in tissues of experimentally infected chickens. Korean J. Parasitol., 48: 79-80.
Overgaauw, PA and van Knapen, F (2013). Veterinary and public health aspects of Toxocara spp. Vet. Parasitol., 193: 398-403.
Pestehchian, N; Rasouli, A and Yousefi, HA (2012). Distribution of intestinal worms among stray dogs in Isfahan, Iran. J. Isfahan. Med. Sch., 29: 2827-2833.
Rafiee Alavi, SE and Nayebzadeh, H (2011). Presence of visceral larva migrans in the urinary bladder of a woman in Khorramabad, Iran. Iran J. Parasitol., 6: 92-94.
Razmi, GH (2009). Survey of dogs’ parasites in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Iran J. Parasitol., 4: 48-54.
Roberts, JA (1989). The extraparasitic life cycle of Toxocara vitulorum in the village environment of Sri Lanka. Vet. Res. Commun., 13: 377-388.
Rokni, MB; Massoud, J and Mowlavi, GH (2000). Report of 10 cases of visceral larval migrans in Iran. Iran J. Public Health. 29: 61-66.
Roldan, WH and Espinoza, YA (2009). Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz., 104: 411-418.
Rostami, A; Ebrahimi, M; Mehravar, S; Fallah Omrani, V; Fallahi, S and Behniafar, H (2016). Contamination of commonly consumed raw vegetables with soil transmitted helminth eggs in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 225: 54-58.
Sadighian, A (1969). Helminth parasites of stray dogs and jackals in Shahsavar area, Caspian region, Iran. J. Parasitol., 55: 372-374.
Sadjjadi, SM; Khosravi, M; Mehrabani, D and Oryan, A (2000). Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in school children in Shiraz, southern Iran. J. Trop. Pediatr., 46: 327-330.
Sadjjadi, SM; Oryan, A; Jalali, AR and Mehrabani, D (2001). Prevalence and intensity of infestation with Toxocara cati in stray cats in Shiraz, Iran. Veterinarski Arch., 71: 149-157.
Saraei, M; Zakilo, M; Tavazoei, Y; Jahanihashemi, H and Shahnazi, M (2012). Contamination of soil and grass to Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks of Qazvin, Iran. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 2: S1156-S1158.
Sardarian, K; Maghsood, AH; Ghiasian, SA and Zahirnia, AH (2015). Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in household and stray dogs in rural areas of Hamadan, Western Iran. Trop. Biomed., 32: 240-246.
Sarkari, B; Lari, M; Shafiei, R and Sadjjadi, SM (2015). A comparative seroprevalence study of toxocariasis in hypereosinophilic and apparently healthy individuals. Arch. Pediatr. Infect. Dis., 3: e17911.
Sarvi, S; Daryani, A; Sharif, M; Rahimi, MT; Azami, D; Marhaba, Z; Ahmadpour, E and Mizani, A (2014). Domestic dog as a human health hazard in north of Iran. J. Parasit. Dis., 40: 930-934.
Schantz, PM (1989). Toxocara larva migrans now. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 41: 21-34.
Sharif, M; Daryani, A; Barzegar, G; Nasrollahi, M and Khalilian, A (2010). Seroprevalence of toxocariasis in schoolchildren in northern Iran. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 13: 180-183.
Sharif, M; Nasrolahei, M; Ziapour, SP; Gholami, S; Ziaei, H; Daryani, A and Khalilian, A (2007). Toxocara cati infections in stray cats in northern Iran. J. Helminthol., 81: 63-66.
Shemshadi, B; Ranjbar-Bahadori, S and Jahani, S (2014). Prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in carnivores and primates at Vakilabad Zoo in Mashhad, Iran. Comp. Clin. Pathol., 24: 384-391.
Shirzadi, SH; Hashemzadeh-Farhang, H and Davoudi, J (2010a). Study on infestation of stray cats in Tabriz area to Toxocara cati. Vet. Res., 6: 69-73.
Shirzadi, SH; Hashemzadeh-Farhang, H; Shabestari-Asl, A and Garedaghi, Y (2010b). Study on infestation of Persian cats in Tabriz area by Toxocara cati. Vet. Clin. Pathol., 3: 691-698.
Siyadatpanah, A; Tabatabaei, F; Zeydi, AE; Spotin, A; Fallah-Omrani, V; Assadi, M; Moradi, S; Rostami, A; Memari, F and Hajialiani, F (2013). Parasitic contamination of raw vegetables in Amol, North of Iran. Arch. Clin. Infect. Dis., 8: e15983.
Smith, H; Holland, C; Taylor, M; Magnaval, JF; Schantz, P and Maizels, R (2009). How common is human toxocariasis? Towards standardizing our knowledge. Trends Parasitol., 5: 182-188.
Stirewalt, MA (1963). Chemical biology of secretions of larval helminths. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 113: 36-53.
Tavalla, M; Oormazdi, H; Akhlaghi, L; Razmjou, E; Moradi Lakeh, M; Shojaee, S; Hadighi, R and Meamar, AR (2012). Prevalence of parasites in soil samples in Tehran public places. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 11: 4575-4578.
Tavassoli, M; Hadian, M; Charesaz, S and Javadi, S (2008). Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks of Urmia city, West Azerbaijan ProvinceIran. Iran J. Parasitol., 3: 24-29.
Tavassoli, M; Javadi, S; Firozi, R; Rezaei, F; Khezri, A and Hadian, M (2012). Hair contamination of sheepdog and pet dogs with Toxocara canis eggs. Iran J. Parasitol., 7: 110-115.
Tavassoli, M and Tadayon, K (2000). Studies on Toxocara vitulorum infection of native and dairy calves in Urmia, Iran. J. Fac. Vet. Med. Univ. Tehran. 55: 71-73.
Taylor, MA; Coop, RL and Wall, RL (2016). Veterinary Parasitology. 4th Edn., Oxford, UK, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., P: 315.
Xinou, E; Lefkopoulos, A; Gelagoti, M; Drevelegas, A; Diakou, A; Milonas, I and Dimitriadis, AS (2003). CT and MR imaging findings in cerebral toxocaral disease. Am. J. Neuroradiol., 24: 714-718.
Yamasaki, H; Araki, K; Lim, PK; Zasmy, N; Mak, JW; Taib, R and Aoki, T (2000). Development of a highly specific recombinant Toxocara canis second-stage larva excretory-secretory antigen for immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. J. Clin. Microbiol., 38: 1409-1413.