Alexander, D (1988). Newcastle disease diagnosis. In: Newcastle disease. USA, Springer. PP: 147-160.
Alexander, D (2000). Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses. Rev. Sci. Tech., 19: 443-462.
Dortmans, J; Rottier, P; Koch, G and Peeters, B (2010). The viral replication complex is associated with the virulence of Newcastle disease virus. J. Virol., 84: 10113-10120.
Dufour-Zavala, L (2008). A laboratory manual for the isolation, identification, and characterization of avian pathogens. 4th Edn., AAAP. PP: 221-230.
Garcia, SC; Lopez, RN; Morales, R; Olvera, MA; Marquez, MA; Merino, R; Miller, PJ and Afonso, CL (2013). Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Mexico and the potential spillover of viruses from poultry into wild bird species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 79: 4985-4992.
Gotoh, B; Ohnishi, Y; Inocencio, N; Esaki, E; Nakayama, K; Barr, P; Thomas, G and Nagai, Y (1992). Mammalian subtilisin-related proteinases in cleavage activation of the paramyxovirus fusion glycoprotein: superiority of furin/PACE to PC2 or PC1/PC3. J Virol., 66: 6391-6397.
Heiden, S; Grund, C; Röder, A; Granzow, H; Kühnel, D; Mettenleiter, TC and Römer-Oberdörfer, A (2014). Different regions of the Newcastle sisease virus fusion protein modulate pathogenicity. PLoS One. 9: e113344.
Hemmatzadeh, F and Alinejad, A (2003). A study on proteinal pattern of isolated NDV in Iran and comparison with live vaccine strains. Iran. J. Vet. Res., 58: 61-65.
Hemmatzadeh, F; Nayeri, B and Tofighi, E (2006). Antigenic differences in Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Iran. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5: 408-410.
Hemmatzadeh, F; Nikbakht-Brojeni, G; Kateb, S; Mokhtari, F; Alinejad, A and Ghafari, M (2005). Designing of a specific immunoflurescence method for differentiation of velogenic and vaccinal strains of Newcastle disease virus. Iran. J. Vet. Res., 60: 393-399.
Hemmatzadeh, F and Sharifzadeh, A (2006). A specific dot-blot immunoassay for Newcastle disease serodiagnosis. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5: 1079-1081.
Laemmli, UK (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 227: 680-685.
Maclachlan, NJ; Dubovi, EJ and Fenner, F (2010). Fenner’s veterinary virology. 4th Edn., Amsterdam, Boston, Elsevier Academic Press. PP: 264-266.
Nagai, Y; Klenk, HD and Rott, R (1976). Proteolytic cleavage of the viral glycoproteins and its significance for the virulence of Newcastle disease virus. Virology. 72: 494-508.
Ogasawara, T; Gotoh, B; Suzuki, H; Asaka, J; Shimokata, K; Rott, R and Nagai, Y (1992). Expression of factor X and its significance for the determination of paramyxovirus tropism in the chick embryo. EMBO J., 11: 467-472.
Panda, A; Huang, Z; Elankumaran, S; Rockemann, DD and Samal, SK (2004). Role of fusion protein cleavage site in the virulence of Newcastle disease virus. Microb. Pathog., 36: 1-10.
Römer-Oberdörfer, A; Werner, O; Veits, J; Mebatsion, T and Mettenleiter, TC (2003). Contribution of the length of the HN protein and the sequence of the F protein cleavage site to Newcastle disease virus pathogenicity. J. Gen. Virol., 84: 3121-3129.
Sambrook, J; Russell, DW and Russell, DW (2001). Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual (3-volume set).