Document Type: Review article
Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Gadvasu, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab, India
The naturally occurring antioxidants: vitamin E, β-carotene and vitamin C are known to ameliorate the
oxidative stress generated during various physiological and pathological conditions. The oxidative stress may
occur at different sites, different times, and by different mechanisms in the animal system. Lower levels of
the anti-oxidant vitamins are associated with poor fertility and production levels in ruminants. These
antioxidants need to be replenished/regenerated or supplemented at appropriate timings in order to optimize
the ruminant health and productive/reproductive performance.