Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Gadvasu, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab, India
The naturally occurring antioxidants: vitamin E, β-carotene and vitamin C are known to ameliorate the oxidative stress generated during various physiological and pathological conditions. The oxidative stress may occur at different sites, different times, and by different mechanisms in the animal system. Lower levels of the anti-oxidant vitamins are associated with poor fertility and production levels in ruminants. These antioxidants need to be replenished/regenerated or supplemented at appropriate timings in order to optimize the ruminant health and productive/reproductive performance.