Document Type: Scientific report
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
A Holstein heifer with symptoms of dystocia was admitted in the Large Animal Clinic at the University of Tabriz. In the vaginal examination, the fetus was found at posterior presentation and by doing some
obstetrical maneuvers, a male calf was delivered. An interesting phenomenon was the presence of two skin
sacs in dimensions of 12 × 12 cm and 12 × 18 cm at the right and left upper cervical regions, respectively;
and also the heart beats under the neck skin at the lower cervical region. Due to severe dyspnea, after 2 min the calf died. At necropsy, the heart was located outside of the thoracic cavity, under the neck skin. The
direction of the heart axis was reversed as the base was directed caudoventrally and the apex craniodorsally.
Unlike a normal calf’s heart, the shape of its apex was rounded like a dog heart. Histopathologic examination revealed severe congestion, edema and hemosiderosis in the lungs, passive venous congestion and scattered foci of cardiomyolysis in the myocardium. Based on anatomical and histopathological findings, the disorder was diagnosed as bovine fetal Ectopia cordis cervicalis associated with two cervical sacs.